The Islamic nation witnessed the days of the Abbasid Caliphate in the East, and the Umayyad rule in Andalusia (the era of governors and emirates), transformations in all the facilities of life, including the political and administrative conditions in state institutions, whether in the Islamic East or in Andalusia, as a result of the development of administrative systems accompanying the development of the social system due to its influence. The different nations, groups and peoples that embraced Islam and became within the concept of (the Islamic nation), and from here these peoples influenced one another, and this influence necessitated the emergence of a kind of prosperity in all life facilities, including the administrative systems of states and regions, which are the focus of research and investigation, and from here it crystallized. His idea is by shedding light on each of the administrative systems in the Islamic East and their counterparts for the same period in Andalusia, so that the reader can see aspects of similarity and difference, or prosperity, decay and decline for both parties, who are the most important poles of the Islamic nation.
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Dr. Ikhlas Amanah Mahi
Department of History, Ibn Rushd College of Education for Humanities, Baghdad University, Iraq
Received: 30-11-2022, Accepted: 12-02-2023, Published Online: 24-02-2023